Severe Vibrio vulnificus Infections in the United States Associated with Warming Coastal Waters - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 497

7 months 2 weeks ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to: Notify healthcare providers, laboratories, and public health departments about recent reports of fatal Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus)infections, including wound and foodborne infections. Urge healthcare professionals to consider V. vulnificus as a possible cause of infected wounds that were exposed to coastal waters, particularly near the Gulf of Mexico or East Coast, and during periods with warmer coastal sea surface temperatures. Share important guidance for managing V. vulnificus wound infections.

Important Updates on Locally Acquired Malaria Cases Identified in Florida, Texas, and Maryland - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 496

7 months 3 weeks ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Update to share new information with clinicians, public health authorities, and the public about locally acquired malaria cases identified in the United States. On August 18, 2023, a single case of locally acquired malaria was reported in Maryland in the National Capital Region. This case was caused by the Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) species and is unrelated to the cases involving local transmission of Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) malaria in Florida and Texas described in the HAN Health Advisory 494 issued on June 26, 2023. As an update to that report, to date, Florida has identified seven cases and Texas has identified one case of locally acquired P. vivax malaria, but there have been no reports of local transmission of malaria in Florida or Texas since mid-July 2023.

cWildfire Smoke Exposure Poses Threat to At-Risk Populations - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 495

9 months 2 weeks ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is reminding healthcare professionals seeing patients affected by wildfire smoke to be alert to the possible adverse effects of smoke exposure, particularly among individuals at higher risk of severe outcomes. The acute signs and symptoms of smoke exposure can include headache, eye and mucous membrane irritation, dyspnea (trouble breathing), cough, wheezing, chest pain, palpitations, and fatigue. Wildfire smoke exposure may exacerbate respiratory, metabolic, and cardiovascular chronic conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and congestive heart failure.

Locally Acquired Malaria Cases Identified in the United States - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 494

9 months 3 weeks ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to share information and notify clinicians, public health authorities, and the public about- Identification of locally acquired malaria cases (P. vivax) in two U.S. states (Florida [4] and Texas [1]) within the last 2 months, Concern for a potential rise in imported malaria cases associated with increased international travel in summer 2023, and Need to plan for rapid access to IV artesunate, which is the first-line treatment for severe malaria in the United States.

Guidance on Measles during the Summer Travel Season - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 493

9 months 4 weeks ago
As the summer travel season begins, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to remind clinicians and public health officials to provide guidance for measles prevention to international travelers and to be on alert for cases of measles. Guidance is also provided for people planning international travel. Measles (rubeola) is extremely contagious; one person infected by measles can infect 9 out of 10 of their unvaccinated close contacts. As of June 8, 2023, CDC has been notified of 16 confirmed U.S. cases of measles across 11 jurisdictions, with 14 (88%) linked to international travel. Based on current estimates, twice as many Americans are planning to travel internationally in 2023 compared with 2022. Many countries and popular travel destinations, such as London, England, have experienced measles outbreaks in recent years. The United States has seen an increase in measles cases during the first 5 months of 2023, with 16 reported cases compared with 3 in 2022 during the same period. Most of these cases were among children who had not received measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. To prevent measles infection and spread from importation, all U.S. residents should be up to date on their MMR vaccinations, especially prior to international travel regardless of the destination.

Important Updates on Outbreak of Fungal Meningitis in U.S. Patients Who Underwent Surgical Procedures under Epidural Anesthesia in Matamoros, Mexico - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 492

10 months 2 weeks ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Update to supplement the CDC HAN Health Advisory issued on May 17, 2023. This Health Update provides updates on the status of the ongoing fungal meningitis outbreak and highlights interim recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. As of June 1, 2023, a multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis is ongoing among patients who underwent procedures under epidural anesthesia in the city of Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, at two clinics: River Side Surgical Center and Clinica K-3. Three U.S. laboratories (CDC Mycotic Diseases Branch's Laboratory, UCSF Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, and UW Medicine Molecular Microbiology laboratory) and the Mexican national laboratory (InDRE) have detected fungal signals consistent with the Fusarium solani species complex from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients receiving follow-up care in Mexico or the United States. In addition, elevated levels of beta-D-glucan, a biomarker of fungal infection, have been detected in the CSF of at least six patients. A total of 212 residents in 25 U.S. states and jurisdictions have been identified who might be at risk of fungal meningitis because they received epidural anesthesia at the clinics of interest in 2023. Among these patients, 14 suspected, 11 probable, and two confirmed U.S cases have been diagnosed (see case definitions below); three patients (two probable cases and one confirmed case) have died. Efforts by public health officials are ongoing to find and notify additional patients who might be at risk.

Outbreak of Suspected Fungal Meningitis in U.S. Patients who Underwent Surgical Procedures under Epidural Anesthesia in Matamoros, Mexico - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 491

11 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network Health Advisory about an outbreak of suspected fungal meningitis among U.S. patients hospitalized in Texas after undergoing cosmetic procedures under epidural anesthesia in the city of Matamoros, state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. It is currently unknown which organism(s) is causing the outbreak. A fungal etiology is suspected based on elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the fungal biomarker (1,3)-beta-D-glucan in at least one patient. As of May 12, 2023, five patients have been diagnosed with suspected fungal meningitis; all have been hospitalized, and one has died. All these patients received epidural anesthesia and underwent cosmetic procedures. Affected patients underwent procedures in at least two clinics in Matamoros, Mexico, including River Side Surgical Center and Clinica K-3. Other facilities might be identified through further investigation.

Potential Risk for New Mpox Cases - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 490

11 months ago
In the United States, cases of mpox (formerly monkeypox) have declined since peaking in August 2022, but the outbreak is not over. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) continues to receive reports of cases that reflect ongoing community transmission in the United States and internationally. This week, CDC and local partners are investigating a cluster of mpox cases in the Chicago area. From April 17 to May 5, 2023, a total of 12 confirmed and one probable case of mpox were reported to the Chicago Department of Public Health. All cases were among symptomatic men. None of the patients have been hospitalized. Nine (69%) of 13 cases were among men who had received 2 JYNNEOS vaccine doses. Confirmed cases were in 9 (69%) non-Hispanic White men, 2 (15%) non-Hispanic Black men, and 2 (15%) Asian men. The median age was 34 years (range 24-46 years). Travel history was available for 9 cases; 4 recently traveled (New York City, New Orleans, and Mexico).

Marburg Virus Disease Outbreaks in Equatorial Guinea and Tanzania - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 489

1 year ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to inform clinicians and public health departments in the United States about two confirmed outbreaks of Marburg virus disease (MVD)-one in Equatorial Guinea and one in Tanzania. Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that these two outbreaks are related; most experts agree that these represent two independent animal-to-human spillover events. To date, no confirmed cases of MVD related to these outbreaks have been reported in the United States or other countries outside Equatorial Guinea and Tanzania. This Health Advisory provides information about these outbreaks to increase awareness of the risk of imported cases in the United States. It also summarizes CDC's recommendations for case identification, testing, and clinical laboratory biosafety considerations in the United States.

Measles Exposure at a Large Gathering in Kentucky, February 2023 and Global Measles Outbreaks - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 488

1 year 1 month ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to notify clinicians and public health officials about a confirmed measles case at a large gathering. On February 24, 2023, the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH) identified a confirmed case of measles in an unvaccinated individual with a history of recent international travel. While infectious, the individual attended a large religious gathering on February 17-18, 2023, at Asbury University in Wilmore, Kentucky. An estimated 20,000 people attended the gathering from Kentucky, other U.S. states, and other countries during February 17-18, and an undetermined number of these people may have been exposed. This Health Advisory also highlights other recent large global measles outbreaks and associated U.S. importations, and the importance of early recognition, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment. CDC recommends that clinicians be on alert for cases of measles that meet the case definition.

Increased Chikungunya Virus Activity in Paraguay and Associated Risk to Travelers - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 487

1 year 1 month ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to notify clinicians and public health authorities of an increase in the number of cases of chikungunya reported in Paraguay. Most cases have been reported in the capital district of Asunción and the neighboring Central department. As of February 24, 2023, the Ministry of Health in Paraguay reported a total of 71,478 suspect chikungunya cases in Paraguay, with 29,362 of those being probable or confirmed cases since the outbreak began in October 2022 [1]. Further spread of the outbreak in Paraguay and to surrounding countries is possible. This Health Advisory provides information on the current status of the chikungunya outbreak in Paraguay and advises on evaluating and testing travelers returning from Paraguay with signs and symptoms consistent with chikungunya virus infection. It also highlights those at increased risk for severe disease and prevention measures to mitigate additional spread of the virus and potential importation into unaffected areas, including the United States.

Increase in Extensively Drug-Resistant Shigellosis in the United States - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 486

1 year 1 month ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been monitoring an increase in extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Shigella infections (shigellosis) reported through national surveillance systems [1]. In 2022, about 5% of Shigella infections reported to CDC were caused by XDR strains, compared with 0% in 2015. Clinicians treating patients infected with XDR strains have limited antimicrobial treatment options. Shigella bacteria are easily transmissible. XDR Shigella strains can spread antimicrobial resistance genes to other enteric bacteria. Given these potentially serious public health concerns, CDC asks healthcare professionals to be vigilant about suspecting and reporting cases of XDR Shigella infection to their local or state health department and educating patients and communities at increased risk about prevention and transmission. Shigellosis is an acute enteric infection that is an important cause of domestically acquired and travel-associated bacterial diarrhea in the United States. Shigellosis usually causes inflammatory diarrhea that can be bloody and may also lead to fever, abdominal cramping, and tenesmus. Infections are generally self-limiting; however, antimicrobial treatment may be indicated to prevent complications or shorten the duration of illness [2]. CDC defines XDR Shigella bacteria as strains that are resistant to all commonly recommended empiric and alternative antibiotics - azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), and ampicillin. Currently, there are no data from clinical studies of treatment of XDR Shigella to inform recommendations for the optimal antimicrobial treatment of these infections. As such, CDC does not have recommendations for optimal antimicrobial treatment of XDR Shigella infections.

Outbreak of Extensively Drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Artificial Tears - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 485

1 year 2 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory about infections with an extensively drug-resistant strain of Verona Integron-mediated Metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) and Guiana-Extended Spectrum-β-Lactamase (GES)-producing carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-GES-CRPA) in 12 states. Most patients reported using artificial tears. Patients reported more than 10 different brands of artificial tears, and some patients used multiple brands. The majority of patients who used artificial tears reported using EzriCare Artificial Tears, a preservative-free, over-the-counter product packaged in multidose bottles. CDC laboratory testing identified the presence of the outbreak strain in opened EzriCare bottles with different lot numbers collected from two states. Patients and healthcare providers should immediately discontinue using EzriCare artificial tears pending additional guidance from CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Increase in Pediatric Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 484

1 year 3 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to notify clinicians and public health authorities of a recent increase in pediatric invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections. In November 2022, CDC was notified of a possible increase in iGAS infections among children at a hospital in Colorado. Potential increases in pediatric iGAS cases in other states were subsequently noted by contributors to the Infectious Diseases Society of America's provider-based Emerging Infections Network and by certain jurisdictions participating in CDC's Active Bacterial Core Surveillance System (ABCs). This increased number of pediatric iGAS cases in some jurisdictions has occurred in the setting of increased circulation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza viruses, SARS-CoV-2, and other respiratory viruses. While the overall number of cases has remained relatively low and iGAS infections remain rare in children, CDC is investigating these reports.

Important Updates on COVID-19 Therapeutics for Treatment and Prevention - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 483

1 year 3 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Update to supplement the CDC HAN Health Advisories issued on April 25, 2022 and May 24, 2022 to emphasize to healthcare providers, public health departments, and the public that the majority of Omicron sublineages circulating in the United States have reduced susceptibility to the monoclonal antibody, bebtelovimab and the monoclonal antibody combination, cilgavimab and tixagevimab (EvusheldTM). Antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19, ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid™), remdesivir (Veklury®), and molnupiravir (Lagevrio™), retain activity against currently circulating Omicron sublineages. These medications can prevent severe disease, hospitalization, and death and are widely available but have been underused. This HAN Health Update provides health care professionals, public health officials, and the public with guidance on improving use of therapeutics for treatment of COVID-19 and strategies to prevent serious outcomes of COVID-19.

Interim Guidance for Clinicians to Prioritize Antiviral Treatment of Influenza in the Setting of Reduced Availability of Oseltamivir - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 482

1 year 4 months ago
Seasonal influenza activity is high across the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that in the 2022-2023 season to date, there have been at least 13 million illnesses, 120,000 hospitalizations, and 7,300 deaths from influenza (Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report | CDC). While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not indicated shortages of oseltamivir (generic or Tamiflu) in any of its forms (capsules, oral suspension), CDC has received numerous anecdotal reports of availability issues for generic oseltamivir in some locations [1]. This may continue to occur in some communities as influenza activity continues. This Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory provides clinicians and public health officials with guidance for prioritizing oseltamivir for treatment and information on other influenza antivirals that are recommended for treating influenza in areas where oseltamivir is temporarily unavailable.

Update on Managing Monkeypox in Patients Receiving Therapeutics - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 481

1 year 5 months ago
Monkeypox cases have declined since mid-August 2022 in the United States; however, new cases-including clinically severe cases-continue to occur. While there are currently no treatments specifically approved for monkeypox, therapeutics developed for patients with smallpox have been deployed during the current outbreak. This Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Update provides clinicians and public health officials with new information about managing monkeypox in patients requiring therapeutics.

Update on Ebola Virus Disease (Sudan ebolavirus) Outbreak in Central Uganda - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 480

1 year 5 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Update as a follow-up to a HAN Health Advisory (Outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Sudan ebolavirus) in Central Uganda) issued on October 6, 2022. This Health Update serves to inform public health departments, public health laboratories, and clinicians in the United States about the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Uganda caused by Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus). No suspect or confirmed EVD cases related to this outbreak have been reported in the United States (U.S.) or other countries outside of Uganda to date. However, as a precaution because of increasing cases in Uganda, CDC is communicating with public health departments, public health laboratories, and healthcare workers in the United States to provide an update and raise awareness of this outbreak and the potential for importation of cases.

Increased Respiratory Virus Activity, Especially Among Children, Early in the 2022-2023 Fall and Winter - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 479

1 year 5 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory about early, elevated respiratory disease incidence caused by multiple viruses occurring especially among children and placing strain on healthcare systems. Co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza viruses, SARS-CoV-2, and others could place stress on healthcare systems this fall and winter. This early increase in disease incidence highlights the importance of optimizing respiratory virus prevention and treatment measures, including prompt vaccination and antiviral treatment, as outlined below.

Outbreaks of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections Highlight Importance of Maintaining and Monitoring Dental Waterlines - Health Alert Network (HAN) No. 478

1 year 5 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to emphasize the importance of following existing recommendations for maintaining and monitoring dental waterlines. Multiple outbreaks of nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) infections have occurred in children who received pulpotomies in pediatric dental clinics where the dental treatment water contained high levels of bacteria. CDC provides guidelines on infection control in dental settings which contain recommendations to treat dental unit waterlines and monitor water quality. Dental providers should be familiar with these recommendations on how to properly maintain and monitor their dental equipment to ensure that dental treatment water is safe for patient care.
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